Archive for July, 2014
Friday, July 18th, 2014
The American economy is dynamic and innovative, that is critical for sustained economic growth. The FCC is tasked with overseeing broadband and other communications networks. We have to be as agile as the communications sector, as well as protect consumers. Both goals will be served in the products I circulate today for our Aug meeting.
First, we should ensure that consumers can continue to rely on 911, even as the technologies and platforms we use to communicate evolve.
This past April, we noticed a large-scale 911 outage centered in Washington state, where over 4, 500 911 calls failed to get through during one six-hour period. The FCC launched an investigation in to these outages in May, and the investigation is ongoing. Initial reports claim that this outage appears to be a case where the transition to new networks might have been managed poorly and providers within the 911 ecosystem are not operating in a fashion that is transparent to system customers, regulators and each other.
Let me be plain – no enterprise will be allowed to hang up on 911.
Admiral David Simpson, the head of our Public Safety Agency, delivered this message to the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners earlier this week. He was very clear — incumbent providers that have taken a responsibility for making 911 function have also undertaken a public rely on that cannot be compromised. It will certainly not be acceptable to tell anyone they will can’t connect to 911 because of “innovation in the cloud” or a new business design, or because a new communications functionality has superseded carrier responsibility. The bottom line is 911 must be preserved and enhanced.
The fact is our 911 system has struggled to keep pace with new technology. Witness the long-standing inability to text to 911. We’ve made significant progress with this issue this year. Consistent with a Policy Statement unanimously adopted by the Commission in January 2014 the four main wireless carriers, which serve 95 percent of U. S. customers now support text-to-911. More than 100 emergency call centers in 17 states now support text-to-911, and more have initiated plans to come on the internet. I commend the four countrywide wireless carriers for following via on their commitment, and while I’m pleased to see that PSAPs are beginning to respond presently there remains more to be done.
Other than the four main wireless carriers, no other providers associated with text services have offered voluntary commitments to implement text-to-911. On the PSAP side, despite recent progress, the majority still do not support text-to-911.
When you consider how People in america increasingly rely on text as a major means of communication, and the approximately 48 million Americans who are deaf and hard of hearing and 7. 5 million Americans with talk disabilities, all of whom are a lot more reliant on text, these shortcomings are unacceptable.
I’ve often spoken about the regulatory see-saw: if industry acts in the public interest, FCC involvement will be reduced, but if the public interest is not being served, the Commission will not think twice to act. In the case of text-to-911, it is time for your Commission to act. And today, I am circulating an item for consideration at our August open meeting that will get definitive action to implement the particular Policy Statement we unanimously followed in January.
Previously I spoke of the need to up-date not only policies, but processes. Agency-wide we have been moving forward with changes in order to streamline how the Commission functions, and also to update outdated rules.
Today, I am proposing that we up-date our rules regarding antenna construction lighting and marking to provide clearness and reduce regulatory burdens on antenna structure owners and licensees. Within doing so, we specifically adhere to the particular FAA’s air safety requirements.
More specifically, we will election at our August meeting on the Report and Order that would streamline and eliminate outdated provisions from the Commission’s Part 17 rules governing the construction, marking, and lights of antenna structures.
This is one piece in our on-going work to make the regulatory approval process for wireless infrastructure more efficient and effective. Our efforts will enable the companies that deploy wireless networks to build out quickly without unwanted burdens and, as a result, benefit United states consumers by meeting their demand for more and more wireless service. Simultaneously, we are committed to preserving safeguards that will prevent deleterious impacts on historical, environmental, and local interests.
The Report and Order would also make common-sense improvements to our rules. For instance, it would change our rules to allow antenna construction owners to report lighting outages by any means acceptable to the FAA, rather than by “telephone or telegraph. ”
The communications industry will never stop changing and changing. The FCC is committed to updating our policies and processes in order to facilitate and accelerate these developments to maximize the benefits for the American people.
Commission payment Continues Important Work of Supplying Relief from the High Cost of Inmate Phoning
Friday, July 18th, 2014
On This summer 9, 2014 the FCC kept a workshop to analyze the impact of, and discuss issues relating to, ongoing reforms of Inmate Phoning Services (ICS).
Last fall, the Commission – according to a petition that had languished for almost a decade – reformed what it concluded was an unjust, unreasonable, and unfair ICS rate construction by adopting a Report and Order and Further Discover of Proposed Rulemaking (Order) on the subject. Among other things, the Purchase capped interstate rates at $0. 21/minute for debit and prepaid calls and $0. 25/minute regarding collect inmate calling. These prices took effect on February 11, 2014.
By holding this particular workshop, the Commission highlights the continued commitment to ensure just, reasonable and fair rates, by web hosting frank and open discussions with groups representing diverse points associated with view, including ICS providers, public policy leaders, elected officials, correctional facility officials, human rights institutions, and inmate advocacy groups.
We heard about the impact that the Commission’s reforms have had on inmates and their friends plus families, but also learned that there is more to be done. For example , we found that:
- Decreased calling rates have increased call volumes and connectivity between inmates and family and friends — and this increased connectivity may reduce recidivism prices.
- Ancillary fees often account for 30 to 40 percent of end-user charges, and for that reason can significantly decrease the money end users have available for placing phone calls.
- Many facilities do not have a deaf and tough of hearing accessibility plan in place and are unaware of the communications needs of these inmates, leaving these inmates vulnerable and their families with little if any means of contact.
- Very little has been done to alleviate the particular challenges faced by deaf plus hard of hearing inmates since the Commission released the Order.
- The Alabama Community Service Commission has taken significant simple steps toward intrastate ICS reform, including the adoption of tiered rate caps and restrictions on both the forms of, and rates that providers can charge in, ancillary fees.
- Federal detention facilities operated by Immigration and Customs Observance offer inmate calling rates, which usually exclude site commissions but include robust security features, well beneath the Commission’s caps.
- New communications technologies are being developed in the ICS market towards the benefit of inmates and their buddies and families, but these new systems must be continuously updated to respond to client demand and monitored to avoid unexpected misuse.
We thank all of the participants in our workshop. For those who were unable to attend, you can get more information, as well as a link to an aged video, here: http://www.fcc.gov/events/workshop-further-reform-inmate-calling-services.
Panelists also discussed the need for increased transparency. We remind parties that responses to the one-time mandatory information collection for all ICS providers are usually due on or before Aug 18, 2014. This data can help address any lack of transparency encircling the industry as well as help the Commission payment move forward with our commitment to ensure that ICS providers continue to provide secure defendent calling at just, reasonable, and reasonable rates. Data submitted by providers will be available to the public pursuant to a protective order. More information on the information collection and how to obtain access to the data might be found here: http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/ics-mandatory-data-collection.
Wednesday, July 16th, 2014
It’s amazing that more than 900, 000 Americans have expressed their opinions in the first round of Open Internet comments. The Commission’s decision to increase until Friday the period for public comments on the Open Internet proceeding reflects both the public’s interest in the topic as well as the antiquated IT capabilities of the agency that have not been able to take care of the surge of comments.
The FCC has been compelled by budget restrictions to operate with the IT infrastructure that would be unacceptable to any well-managed business. Efforts to upgrade this IT capability were the casualty of sequestration. Most recently, the agency requested of Congress approximately $13 million for IT upgrades in the FY 2015 appropriation. I value that the Senate subcommittee has provided the Commission with full funding in its FY 2015 spending bill, to ensure that we can make these important improvements. Unfortunately, the appropriations bill transferred by the House today would finance the FCC at $17 million below current levels and $53 million below our overall budget demand, dramatically undermining any effort in order to modernize our IT systems.
The ability to improve the FCC’s inner procedures – an important priority with regard to Congress – will be hurt without having 21st Century IT infrastructure.
The ability of the public to speak with their government has – as seen – already has been harm by the inability of the FCC to get all of their comments without complication.
The ability of those companies the FCC regulates to express their views is similarly hurt by an infrastructure none of them would tolerate within their own companies, even though their costs pay for the FCC budget without having touching tax dollars.
It is particularly distasteful that the FCC – the agency entrusted along with promoting a world-class broadband infrastructure for the nation – could actually be incapable of dealing with Americans conveying themselves via that broadband ability.
I am hopeful that will leaders in Congress, recognizing the significance of these systems to the public’s ability to communicate their views to the FCC without complication or delay, can ultimately reach agreement on funding levels that ensure we have the resources to modernize and upgrade our IT systems.
Make no mistake about it. The particular impact of outdated IT is important since we want to hear from the American individuals. That citizens take the time to reach out to their government is democracy in action. Certainly, we are fighting for an Open Internet precisely because it is needed in order to advertise and protect the unrestricted movement of diverse ideas (as properly as innovative products and services from the edges of the network ). We best serve that will ideal, and the American people, by putting the resources to bear to ensure that their opinion on any issue can reach the FCC immediately. I hope that the outpouring of remarks this week will help drive that summary home.
Monday, July 14th, 2014
Tomorrow marks the end of the 1st round of comments in the Commission’s Open Internet Proceeding. During the past 60 days, the Commission has received numerous comments from a wide range of constituents. Chairman Tom Wheeler and I both enthusiastically support open government and open up data, so with this post I wanted to share the hourly rate of responses submitted into the FCC’s Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) since the begin of public comments on the FCC’s Open Internet Proceeding (Proceeding 14-28). Here’s a link to a Comma Divided Values (CSV) text file supplying those hourly rates for all responses submitted to ECFS and those particular to the Open Internet Proceeding; beneath is a graphical presentation of that same data.
As the data shows, the public has been submitting a high-volume associated with comments into ECFS over the last two months. The FCC IT team rapidly implemented an additional caching feature on June 3 to support some of the greatest concurrent commenting levels that ECFS has seen in its 17-plus year history.
In addition , the Commission also has already been receiving comments to the openinternet@fcc. gov email inbox that was established April 24 — before the Commission used the Open Internet Notice associated with Proposed Rulemaking on May fifteen, which began the official comment period in ECFS. Here’s a link to some CSV text file providing all those weekly rates and below is really a graphical presentation of the data associated with email comments received.
Although the day for the initial round of responses is tomorrow, the Commission’s email inbox and ECFS will remain open up. We continue to invite engagement through all interested parties. We will still update the two CSV text data files providing the commenting rates in the webpage, as well as provide an open application programming interface (API) to the CSV files. The FCC IT team will also look into implementing an easier way for electronic “web scraping” of responses available in ECFS for comment downloading greater than 100, 000 comments at the same time as we work to modernize the particular FCC enterprise.
The number of people submitting comments is amazing, underscoring the importance of this issue and the important role public engagement plays in the Commission’s policy-making process. When the ECFS system was created in 1996, the particular Commission presumably didn’t imagine it would receive more than 100, 000 digital comments on a single telecommunications issue. Open up government and open data is important to our rapidly changing times both in terms of the pace of technology advances and the tightening of budgets in government. I hope you find this information helpful.
Friday, July 11th, 2014
Nowadays, the FCC’s Office of Architectural & Technology (OET) and the Business Department’s National Telecommunications and Details Administration (NTIA) released a Mutual Public Notice that seeks input within the establishment of a “Model City” system to test advanced wireless spectrum revealing technologies.
The NTIA and the FCC have encouraged plus supported the development of advanced spectrum revealing technologies and techniques. Notably, the Commission recently revised its fresh licensing rules to facilitate progress radio technologies by establishing procedures for program licenses and innovation zones.
The President’s Council of Advisors on Technology and Technology (PCAST) recommended the creation of an “urban Test City” to “support rapid experimentation” associated with advanced spectrum sharing technologies. The Joint Public Notice seeks to begin the process of transforming this recommendation from an idea to reality. We have chosen to use the term “Model City” to better reflect the idea that systems or systems might be developed that could serve as an auto dvd unit for spectrum sharing techniques which can be deployed elsewhere.
It really is too soon to know what a “Model City” might entail and what aspects would fall within the jurisdiction of the NTIA and/or the FCC. For example , the model city could be developed like a public-private partnership and implemented below existing provisions such as the FCC’s fresh licensing program.
What is clear is that there is a high possibility that both NTIA and FCC will have a role to play, particularly mainly because most of the spectrum is shared between federal and non-federal users. For this reason we have initiated this process through a joint notice.
We appreciate that the notice does not lay out particular details of the “Model City” idea. We also recognize that many more queries might have been asked than those in the observe. Our intent is to spark private sector initiative to help turn this particular rough concept into a more specific program.
We are excited about the thought of a “Model City. ” We all encourage all interested parties to examine the Joint Public Notice launched today and welcome all remarks on how best to establish this “Model City” that will be a critical test bed for finding additional ways to meet the growing demand for spectrum. The feedback we receive will be important once we continue to work towards making more spectrum available for commercial use.
Tuesday, July 8th, 2014
Last week, the Consumer and Government Affairs Bureau (CGB) released a Public Notice seeking comment on whether to terminate almost 650 heavy proceedings (i. e., dockets which have no planned action and no more comments expected). I applaud Chairman Wheeler for initiating this item as well as the CBG staff as well as the individual Bureaus and Offices that worked on this document.
The charts below, prepared by my great staff, help visualize the scope of the Commission’ s i9000 recent effort. As the 1st chart shows, the agency provides over 2, 800 open procedures pending. The second chart organizes— by Bureau and Office— the specific proceedings contemplated for closure within the Public Notice.
I’ m in the process of reviewing CGB’ s recommendations and its related attachment, but in general I believe that closing outdated FCC proceedings makes a lot of sense. Doing so could help the agency become more organized and focused on decisions that need to be produced. It could also make it simpler for both Congress and the public to track what the agency is working on or still considering. And yes it could help prevent the Commission from using antiquated information as a basis for regulating.
In fact , cleaning the regulatory decks is something we should probably do more often— maybe even annually. The particular Commission may also want to consider generating an automatic closure process. Maybe after a year, and with appropriate notice, we could close proceedings that have been concluded and for which no further pleadings are filed. This could significantly reduce the number of unnecessary open procedures, while still allowing public access to the documents that were generated.
Monday, July 7th, 2014
Chart 1 shows the FCC’s actual outlays for the Universal Support Fund (USF) and Interstate Telecommunications Relay Services Fund (TRS) up to now and the future spending projections through the year 2024 as estimated by Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the nation’s official budgetary scorekeeper. Chart 2 shows the growth within USF disbursements, which have been the primary driver of the growth seen in Chart one
Under the current structure, the programs are usually scheduled to grow to $10 billion in 2015 and steadily boost thereafter to reach $11 billion within 2024. Most of that growth will continue to be attributable to USF.This means that within 2024, the funds will be more than 21% larger than they were in 2013 and, in those 11 years, the funds will spend an extraordinary $13 billion more than they would have if funding had been kept at 2013 levels. Importantly, this flight just represents present circumstances. Put simply, it does not assume that the Commission will make any programmatic changes that would more increase spending.
In fairness, USF’s past growth must not be too surprising for close fans. It is a culmination of various past Fee decisions that have had the effect associated with increasing the overall size of the Account. For example , to make precise some of the former implicit financial assistance necessary to ensure continued communications provider in high-cost areas, the Fee phased out certain intercarrier compensation (ICC) charges over time and replaced all of them, in part, with new USF funding. Meanwhile, the Fund grew significantly after the Commission allowed multiple companies to obtain high-cost funding in the exact same areas (a policy that ended after 2011) and again when the agency added wireless phones in order to USF’s Lifeline program.
So what do CBO’s USF projections mean for the average American? They represent an ever growing strain on their pocketbook. That is because the FCC—through an entity called the Universal Service Management Company (USAC)—simply estimates what will be needed to cover the planned expenditures for the USF programs, assesses phone system providers, and this cost is inevitably passed on to consumers in the form of a charge on their phone bills.Given the fund’s projected growth, we must be increasingly sensitive to the problems that this fee creates and make an effort to limit the amount of any increase.
That is why I am concerned about this aspect of the upcoming reforms towards the E-Rate program. To be clear, I fully support modernizing E-Rate in order to reflect the current needs of college students in the 21st Century. For too long, the Fee has funded functions that no more make sense (e. g., long distance phone service and paging) which has detracted through funding the broadband needs associated with schools and libraries. Meanwhile, numerous educational entities seeking needed E-Rate dollars are often deterred by unwanted hurdles in the current system, which should be streamlined. Finally, we should greatly enhance transparency and do far more to prevent waste materials, fraud and abuse so that all of E-Rate dollars go toward benefitting students and library patrons.
The solution to any E-Rate problems, however , cannot simply be a quilt call to further increase overall USF spending. Doing so would only exacerbate the spending increases already expected. If we believe that more E-Rate spending is necessary now or in the future, then we should make the firm commitment right now to stabilize USF by tallying to offset this new spending by reducing spending elsewhere. It will be very tempting to take the easy path today and leave the difficult funding consequences to a future Fee. But , that would not be real management or good stewardship of the American people’s trust. Instead, I hope that we will use this opportunity to make the responsible decision to live within a reasonable yet limited budget, just as American family members do every day.
 TRS now accounts for around $800 million and is subject to certain inflation and efficiency adjustments. See Telecommunications Relay Services plus Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities , Structure and Practices of the Video Relay Service Program, CG Docket Nos. 03-123, 10-51, Order, DA 14-946 (CGB rel. June 30, 2014).
 Similarly, the TRS administrator quotes the funding requirements for TRS based on proposed compensation rates for that TRS programs and the projected management expenses. Consumers ultimately pay an extra fee on their phone bills.
Saturday, July 5th, 2014
0G-Mobile radio telephone (also known as “0G”). Mobile radiotelephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems.
1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.
3G stands for third-generation and refers to technology that allows mobile phones to access the internet – from surfing web pages to making video calls and downloading music. 3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 200 kbit/s. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system’s global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/second. 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.
4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards. It is a successor to the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is also referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardization body.
Saturday, July 5th, 2014
4G Mobile technology – The mobile race to innovate, includes the following innovations:
- The mobile communications comprise two steps: access to the mobile network, and access to the mobile services. Traditionally, these two steps are all controlled by one operator in a closed and proprietary way. In the 4G mobile era, the access to the mobile services will be evolved to an open Mobile Cloud so that it is fully open to any developers and providers. In this way, any non-wireless industries, such as Google, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, GM, Bank of America can provide services for their mobile users. The access to the mobile network is still controlled by the traditional wireless operators such as AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile and China Mobile. Of course, the operators are very reluctant to go this trend, but for the mobile users and for the future global movement, it is just a matter of time to do it.
- The mobile device system architecture will be open in order to converge multiple RTTs (radio transmission technologies) in one same device. Same as laptop computer, the future Smartphone will be based on open wireless architecture (OWA) technology which means, when you change the wireless standards, you do not need to change phone. It is totally different from current multi-standards phone which is in closed system architecture, and users can not remove the unused RTT modules and basically can not do anything on the mobile phone system. In the OWA system, you can just change RTT card in your Smartphone to switch your wireless standards, or you can integrate multiple wireless standards in one RTT SIM card. Based on this OWA platform, you can integrate home phone, office phone and mobile phone into one common Personal device – it is more beyond just a phone. In fact, this 4G mobile device is a system to bring the world to your hand, or we call it iHand – the World in Hand, which is more better than calling it an iPhone.
- Any portable consumer electronics device can be a mobile phone by inserting the OWA-powered mobile RTT(s) card. This approach is truly converging the mobile wireless technology with the computer technology by providing the OWA virtualization layer between the high-layer computer-based OS (operating systems) & applications solutions and the underlying wireless transmission-based different mobile networks access means.
- More breakthrough technologies are being developed for efficient utilization of wireless spectrum, and the dynamic and open spectrum management. Wireless is totally different from wired communications, and therefore the overall performance relies on both system performance and transmission performance where spectrum is one of the key issues.
- Power efficiency is another critical issue for mobile device. The system architecture must be open to enable removable of unused modules, and the processing architecture must be optimized to the lowest possible in terms of the whole system performance. Meanwhile, the RF radio modules should be narrowed to the minimal meeting the basic requirements of necessary RTTs.
The world is moving rapidly towards this 4G open mobile movement. In China, the government has in fact, targeted for 4G mobile industry. In European Union, evolution to 4G has been the mission-critical strategy since 2003. Japan and Korea started 4G regulations in 2002. The US mobile market is a pretty different case, because FCC as a law enforcement agency, basically has no power to enforce law. The operators pay huge to the congress, and congress manages the FCC. So eventually, the operator “makes” the law. However, nobody can stop future and it is just a matter of time when this 4G open mobile comes to life.
Everyone is welcome to join forces with us together and move this 4G open mobile technology forward for our future, for our next generation and for our societies. You can take leadership roles or show supports in any of our global 4G mobile events.
Saturday, July 5th, 2014
About Global 4G Open Mobile Initiative
At his inauguration, U.S. President Obama stressed the need for bold and swift action in laying foundations for growth. Appreciating the role of technology in improving effective services and efficient delivery, he acknowledges the demands of a new age with infrastructure and digital line investments required. More recently, global leaders at WEF Davos have also highlighted the importance of innovation in forthcoming solutions. Regardless the difficulty of circumstances, or direness of situation, opportunity arises out of crisis. More than ever, relationship-building and technology innovation are crucial. The 4th generation (4G) mobile technology is becoming the emerging solution to drive the new growth of the industry, and help foster state-of-the-art technology, novel partnership arrangements or transformational business models. Our 4G events, the world’s leading platforms of the 4G industry, are steadfast in supporting the industry and confident in the ability to uncover and advance the opportunities.
Future wireless mobile communications will be shifted from today’s traditional transmission-specific radio technology to an interface-based technology in order to be more compatible with computer system architecture. The future mobile device will therefore be first and foremost a computer, then an open wireless architecture (OWA) low-power terminal. This OWA technology offers an optimal solution to open up the wireless platform for complete openness and simplicity and would support the service-oriented architecture and infrastructure that is necessary for future mobile phone development and advancement.
The first mobile phone was invented in the United States back in the 1960s by Bell Labs, but the US mobile communications market has remained very much closed and far behind the international movement towards the open market of the global industry. Now the world is evolving rapidly into a personal communications era with true openness and freedom in mobile services, but in our opinion, the US is still lagging about ten years behind other countries, such as China, with regards to having a more open and competitive market in wireless communications.
Though different regions have diversified approaches towards the next generation mobile communication technology (called 4th generation mobile, or 4G Mobile), the future trend is same: Convergence among fixed, mobile and wireless communications. No single wireless radio transmission technology (RTT) can do both broadband high-speed data-rate and seamless mobility, and therefore we need multiple RTTs to complement each other in any optimal way to ensure the information is delivered to the mobile user in a more cost-effective way and in a more spectrum-efficient way.
Since we launched this 4G Mobile initiative program in 2000, over 50,000 professionals and investors have witnessed the great successes and shared the invaluable insights throughout our flagship 4G mobile events including World Wireless Congress in USA, Global Mobile Congress in China and 4th Generation Mobile Forum (4GMF) across the global. About 40 IEEE special issues on 4G mobile technologies have been delivered based on this 4G mobile initiative program, and over 100 leading wireless/mobile industries have sponsored our 4G